68: self-confident eater
Self-efficacy means to trust yourself, to believe in your efficiency, to believe in your own capacity to achieve your goals. The concept itself is not new at all, the article is as old as me! (1). To me it also reminds a great deal Annette from “American Beauty” - I will sell this house today! (2) - even though trust in your own potential is not always based on understanding your own power realistically and not on inadequate estimation of your own strength.
So, eating is also related to self-efficacy. There is an eating self-efficacy scale, it measures two most important aspects - eating when in bad mood and eating in socially acceptable situations (3). People who score very high on eating while in bad mood scale, usually eat more regardless of what mood actually is at the moment (which kind of suggests that people who have poorer "internal" self control, compensate that need with "external" control measures, that is food). It is probably logical, from another research, that women with diagnosed depression and low self-efficacy, deal much worse with weight loss and controlling binge eating (4).
Low self-efficacy or low trust in your own ability to control eating is related to more frequent thoughts about body weight, bulimic behavior, and in presence of food - with overall more negative self assessment. Researchers hypothesize that people with low eating self-efficacy are people with eating disorders who do not seek help - not to get rid of disorder, and not to lose weight (5) People who lost weight successfully, but then regained weight, changes in self-efficacy were not recorded. That means self-efficacy does not influence whether you lose weight or not (7).
Good news! Cognitive behavior therapy helps very well with improving self-efficacy. Yay! (6)
1. Self-efficacy: Toward a Unifying Theory of Behavioral Change: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/e8af/4369e0533210860587b7add0c566b74b963a.pdf
2. American Beauty - Annette Bening I Will Sell This House Today: https://youtu.be/SS06JvtlAc8
3. The Development and Validation of an Eating Self-Efficacy Scale: http://www.wwselfmanagement.ca/userContent/documents/English/Professional/Resources/ESES%20original%20Glynn%20%20Ruderman%201986.pdf
4. Binge eating disorder, weight control self-efficacy, and depression in overweight men and women: https://www.nature.com/ijo/journal/v28/n3/full/0802570a.html
5. The relationship between eating self-efficacy and eating disorder symptoms in a non-clinical sample: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1471015305000371
6. Changes in eating self-efficacy and body image following cognitive–behavioral group therapy for binge eating disorder: A clinical study: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1471015301000216
7. Eating self-efficacy and weight cycling: A prospective clinical study: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Teresa_King2/publication/223094488_Eating_self-efficacy_and_weight_cycling_A_prospective_clinical_study/links/5424571a0cf26120b7a74067.pdf
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Another book that I would like to recommend. Not the only one of this kind, I will come back to this later as well. Even though it is not psychology, but this knowledge is still very important. One of the obstacles that does not allow to achieve the desired result is lack of knowledge about how things work. If you stand in front of the door with the key in your hand, but have no clue how to use it - you can spend loads of time just standing there, experiencing despair, anger, blaming the door, the key, yourself or the others. But the door will not open because of this. Accepting this fact, also that knowledge needs to be verified, collected, updated - is the field of psychology.
This specific knowledge - on food and eating - currently is developing very rapidly. There are still things that are valid, but a lot of other things that are new, and even contradict the previous "truths" - to avoid fats, to snack, to eat until full and not get hungry by any means, to eat sugars or food in general in order to have energy (whatever that is), to be able to compensate by exercising if you ate more the day before, to be able to "burn" excess food, etc. Now we know more, so we can treat our bodies a lot better and achieve results a lot faster.
#spoonfulofreading #books #psychology #nutrition
Several things you should know about the Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder, ARFID. It is not "just" a picky eating. This eating disorder causes great psychological and physical stress, people may gag or choke if trying to swallow something that causes them anxiety - foods of specific texture, smell, appearance, or something they choked on before. Because of this people may avoid eating situations all together, like cafeterias or parties.
This disorder may be the cause of serious weight loss of failure to grow.
People with this disorder are not concerned with their weight or body image as often is the case with other eating disorders.
It may occur in people of all ages and genders.
Along with this disorder, people may experience anxiety, mood disorders, symptoms from autism spectrum.
Cognitive behavioral therapy is effective method of help - it focuses on exposure and response prevention.
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Research. Eating healthy? Great. Because of that allow yourself "to let go" and eat something not so healthy on the side? Then not so great.
Researchers have found that a very positive impact of Mediterranean diet (fish, olive oil, vegetables, legumes, full grain products, a bit of red wine) on the cognitive functions, memory and perception are significantly diminished by adding product typical to Western diet (fried meals, refined grains, processed meat, full fat dairy products, pizza, etc.). Cognitive age is increased by appr. 6 years.
Just the facts. For slow consideration.
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My name is Monika, I am psychologist. I help to deal with daily and difficult questions about behavior, thinking, emotions. I write, counsel and teach.
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