Ghrelin is one of the most important hormones, participating in the nutrition and metabolism processes (1). Ghrelin is responsible for creating sense of hunger and for "deciding" how much and which energy should be used. Ghrelin is produced in an empty stomach, when it enters the brain, ghrelin connects to the same receptors as leptin (this is a satiety hormone). That means you cannot be hungry and full at the same time.
Ghrelin regulates, whether the calories (nutrients) from food will be used for production of energy (ATP), heat, glycogen ("fast" energy) or fat. As the weight increases, level of ghrelin in the blood decreases, and this causes hunger to be felt less frequently. If level pf ghrelin in the blood is increased artificially, hunger is not bigger, but more frequent. Therefore it is considered that ghrelin is the weight control measure.
Ghrelin plays part in feeling pleasure when eating tasty food or alcohol (2). When eating for pleasure (not for hunger), level of ghrelin and endocannabinoids in the blood increases (7). Besides other functions, endocannabinoids are responsible for pleasure when eating sweet foods (6).
Higher level of ghrelin is related to antidepressant effect. On the other hand, higher level of ghrelin in this research was achieved by increasing level of stress. We know that increased stress has a number of negative consequences (3). Anyway, it looks like when facing stress, depression in difficult to experience.
If body lacks sleep, level of ghrelin increases, level of leptin - decreases (4). But you cannot compensate sleep with food, even if you are driven to. In a stress situation level of ghrelin increases regardless of the level of adrenaline produced (5). This is why people feel hungry when stressed.
What else can be said. Sleep well, take care of your inner peace, resilience to stress - and eat only when you are hungry.
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Another book that I would like to recommend. Not the only one of this kind, I will come back to this later as well. Even though it is not psychology, but this knowledge is still very important. One of the obstacles that does not allow to achieve the desired result is lack of knowledge about how things work. If you stand in front of the door with the key in your hand, but have no clue how to use it - you can spend loads of time just standing there, experiencing despair, anger, blaming the door, the key, yourself or the others. But the door will not open because of this. Accepting this fact, also that knowledge needs to be verified, collected, updated - is the field of psychology.
This specific knowledge - on food and eating - currently is developing very rapidly. There are still things that are valid, but a lot of other things that are new, and even contradict the previous "truths" - to avoid fats, to snack, to eat until full and not get hungry by any means, to eat sugars or food in general in order to have energy (whatever that is), to be able to compensate by exercising if you ate more the day before, to be able to "burn" excess food, etc. Now we know more, so we can treat our bodies a lot better and achieve results a lot faster.
#spoonfulofreading #books #psychology #nutrition
Several things you should know about the Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder, ARFID. It is not "just" a picky eating. This eating disorder causes great psychological and physical stress, people may gag or choke if trying to swallow something that causes them anxiety - foods of specific texture, smell, appearance, or something they choked on before. Because of this people may avoid eating situations all together, like cafeterias or parties.
This disorder may be the cause of serious weight loss of failure to grow.
People with this disorder are not concerned with their weight or body image as often is the case with other eating disorders.
It may occur in people of all ages and genders.
Along with this disorder, people may experience anxiety, mood disorders, symptoms from autism spectrum.
Cognitive behavioral therapy is effective method of help - it focuses on exposure and response prevention.
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Conversation with psychologist. Why is it so difficult to control eating in the evening? It seems that a reasonable dinner would be a reason to not want any food anymore, but as soon as you sit down by the TV, hunger creeps in. If the dinner was reasonably good and big, there is no physical reason to feel hunger - but you may feel a psychological one. It is important to label it correctly, because if you say "I am hungry", it immediately makes it "legal" to go and get some snacks. If you say something like "It was a long day, I am tired, I really need to relax" - you do not lead yourself directly to the kitchen, at least. TV is a good way to relax, but usually not so interesting and allows for a small bit of boredom. At this moment it is very important to recognize that food is not the only way to deal with boredom. If you need, make a list of thing you can do while watching TV to avoid snacking - games, puzzles, crosswords, sudoku, coloring, drawing, knitting, building - anything works, really, to help you out while you are working on your eating and weight loss goals. Actual making of the list will help you to remember those things easier and more likely to do them. Especially if you keep it where you can easily see it.
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